Sri Sairam College of Engineering
Address: Sai Leo Nagar Guddanahalli post Anekal, Bengaluru, Karnataka 562106


1) First Round : Written
40 C output questions. 2 Hours.
30 1Mark and 10 2Mark questions. IT WAS NOT MCQ. The questions were challenging and covered all C concepts.
2) Second Round : Coding
Time and Distance
Time and Work
Compound Interest
Problems on Ages



int main()


char str[ ] = “Modify This String To Upper”;


return 0;




Use below C program to convert upper case into lower case. strlwr() function is also a non standard function. So, all compilers may not support.



int main()


char str[ ] = “MODIFY This String To LOwer”;

printf(“%s\n”,strlwr (str));

return 0;



modify this string to lower

Interesting Facts about Macros and Preprocessors in C
In a C program, all lines that start with # are processed by preprocessor which is a special program invoked by the compiler. In a very basic term, preprocessor takes a C program and produces another C program without any #.

Following are some interesting facts about preprocessors in C.
1) When we use include directive, the contents of included header file (after preprocessing) are copied to the current file.
Angular brackets < and > instruct the preprocessor to look in the standard folder where all header files are held. Double quotes “ and “ instruct the preprocessor to look into the current folder and if the file is not present in current folder, then in standard folder of all header files.
2) When we use define for a constant, the preprocessor produces a C program where the defined constant is searched and matching tokens are replaced with the given expression. For example in the following program max is defined as 100.

#define max 100
int main()
printf(“max is %d”, max);
return 0;
// Output: max is 100
// Note that the max inside “” is not replaced
Run on IDE
3) The macros can take function like arguments, the arguments are not checked for data type. For example, the following macro INCREMENT(x) can be used for x of any data type.

#define INCREMENT(x) ++x
int main()
char *ptr = “GeeksQuiz”;
int x = 10;
printf(“%s “, INCREMENT(ptr));
printf(“%d”, INCREMENT(x));
return 0;
// Output: eeksQuiz 11
Run on IDE
4) The macro arguments are not evaluated before macro expansion. For example consider the following program

#define MULTIPLY(a, b) a*b
int main()
// The macro is expended as 2 + 3 * 3 + 5, not as 5*8
printf(“%d”, MULTIPLY(2+3, 3+5));
return 0;
// Output: 16
Run on IDE
5) The tokens passed to macros can be concatenated using operator ## called Token-Pasting operator.

#define merge(a, b) a##b
int main()
printf(“%d “, merge(12, 34));
// Output: 1234
Run on IDE
6) A token passed to macro can be converted to a sting literal by using # before it.

#define get(a) #a
int main()
// GeeksQuiz is changed to “GeeksQuiz”
printf(“%s”, get(GeeksQuiz));
// Output: GeeksQuiz
Run on IDE
7) The macros can be written in multiple lines using ‘\’. The last line doesn’t need to have ‘\’.

#define PRINT(i, limit) while (i < limit) \ { \ printf("GeeksQuiz "); \ i++; \ } int main() { int i = 0; PRINT(i, 3); return 0; } // Output: GeeksQuiz GeeksQuiz GeeksQuiz Run on IDE 8) The macros with arguments should be avoided as they cause problems sometimes. And Inline functions should be preferred as there is type checking parameter evaluation in inline functions. From C99 onward, inline functions are supported by C language also. For example consider the following program. From first look the output seems to be 1, but it produces 36 as output. #define square(x) x*x int main() { int x = 36/square(6); // Expended as 36/6*6 printf("%d", x); return 0; } // Output: 36 Run on IDE If we use inline functions, we get the expected output. Also the program given in point 4 above can be corrected using inline functions. inline int square(int x) { return x*x; } int main() { int x = 36/square(6); printf("%d", x); return 0; } // Output: 1 Run on IDE 9) Preprocessors also support if-else directives which are typically used for conditional compilation. int main() { #if VERBOSE >= 2
printf(“Trace Message”);
Run on IDE
10) A header file may be included more than one time directly or indirectly, this leads to problems of redeclaration of same variables/functions. To avoid this problem, directives like defined, ifdef and ifndef are used.
11) There are some standard macros which can be used to print program file (__FILE__), Date of compilation (__DATE__), Time of compilation (__TIME__) and Line Number in C code (__LINE__)


int main()
printf(“Current File :%s\n”, __FILE__ );
printf(“Current Date :%s\n”, __DATE__ );
printf(“Current Time :%s\n”, __TIME__ );
printf(“Line Number :%d\n”, __LINE__ );
return 0;

/* Output:
Current File :C:\Users\GfG\Downloads\deleteBST.c
Current Date :Feb 15 2014
Current Time :07:04:25
Line Number :8 */

Interview Questions
1.There are two strings S1 and s2. Remove the charecters in S1 which is present in s2. Eg: ip: s1:ZohoCorp s2: Co
Output: Zhrp
2.Print the permutations of a string without duplicates

Given a string, that contains special character together with alphabets (‘a’ to ‘z’ and ‘A’ to ‘Z’), reverse the string in a way that special characters are not affected.


Input: str = “a,b$c”
Output: str = “c,b$a”
Note that $ and , are not moved anywhere.
Only subsequence “abc” is reversed

Input: str = “Ab,c,de!$”
Output: str = “ed,c,bA!$”

1. Which two method you need to implement for key Object in HashMap ?
In order to use any object as Key in HashMap, it must implements equals and hashcode method in Java. Read How HashMap works in Java for detailed explanation on how equals and hashcode method is used to put and get object from HashMap.

2. What is immutable object? Can you write immutable object?Immutable classes are Java classes whose objects can not be modified once created. Any modification in Immutable object result in new object. For example is String is immutable in Java. Mostly Immutable are also final in Java, in order to prevent sub class from overriding methods in Java which can compromise Immutability. You can achieve same functionality by making member as non final but private and not modifying them except in constructor.

3. What is the difference between creating String as new() and literal?
When we create string with new() Operator, it’s created in heap and not added into string pool while String created using literal are created in String pool itself which exists in PermGen area of heap.

String s = new String(“Test”);

does not put the object in String pool , we need to call String.intern() method which is used to put them into String pool explicitly. its only when you create String object as String literal e.g. String s = “Test” Java automatically put that into String pool.

4. What is difference between StringBuffer and StringBuilder in Java ?

Classic Java questions which some people thing tricky and some consider very easy. StringBuilder in Java is introduced in Java 5 and only difference between both of them is that Stringbuffer methods are synchronized while StringBuilder is non synchronized. See StringBuilder vs StringBuffer for more differences.

5. Write code to find the First non repeated character in the String ?
Another good Java interview question, This question is mainly asked by Amazon and equivalent companies. See first non repeated character in the string : Amazon interview question

6. What is the difference between ArrayList and Vector ?
This question is mostly used as a start up question in Technical interviews on the topic of Collection framework . Answer is explained in detail here Difference between ArrayList and Vector .

7. How do you handle error condition while writing stored procedure or accessing stored procedure from java?
This is one of the tough Java interview question and its open for all, my friend didn’t know the answer so he didn’t mind telling me. my take is that stored procedure should return error code if some operation fails but if stored procedure itself fail than catching SQLException is only choice.

8. What is difference between Executor.submit() and Executer.execute() method ?
There is a difference when looking at exception handling. If your tasks throws an exception and if it was submitted with execute this exception will go to the uncaught exception handler (when you don’t have provided one explicitly, the default one will just print the stack trace to System.err). If you submitted the task with submit any thrown exception, checked exception or not, is then part of the task’s return status. For a task that was submitted with submit and that terminates with an exception, the Future.get will re-throw this exception, wrapped in an ExecutionException.

9. What is the difference between factory and abstract factory pattern?
Abstract Factory provides one more level of abstraction. Consider different factories each extended from an Abstract Factory and responsible for creation of different hierarchies of objects based on the type of factory. E.g. AbstractFactory extended by AutomobileFactory, UserFactory, RoleFactory etc. Each individual factory would be responsible for creation of objects in that genre.
You can also refer What is Factory method design pattern in Java to know more details.

10. What is Singleton? is it better to make whole method synchronized or only critical section synchronized ?
Singleton in Java is a class with just one instance in whole Java application, for example java.lang.Runtime is a Singleton class. Creating Singleton was tricky prior Java 4 but once Java 5 introduced Enum its very easy. see my article How to create thread-safe Singleton in Java for more details on writing Singleton using enum and double checked locking which is purpose of this Java interview question.

11. Can you write critical section code for singleton?
This core Java question is followup of previous question and expecting candidate to write Java singleton using double checked locking. Remember to use volatile variable to make Singleton thread-safe.

12. Can you write code for iterating over hashmap in Java 4 and Java 5 ?
Tricky one but he managed to write using while and for loop.

13. When do you override hashcode and equals() ?
Whenever necessary especially if you want to do equality check or want to use your object as key in HashMap.

14. What will be the problem if you don’t override hashcode() method ?
You will not be able to recover your object from hash Map if that is used as key in HashMap.
See here How HashMap works in Java for detailed explanation.

15. Is it better to synchronize critical section of getInstance() method or whole getInstance() method ?
Answer is critical section because if we lock whole method than every time some one call this method will have to wait even though we are not creating any object)

16. What is the difference when String is gets created using literal or new() operator ?
When we create string with new() its created in heap and not added into string pool while String created using literal are created in String pool itself which exists in Perm area of heap.

17. Does not overriding hashcode() method has any performance implication ?
This is a good question and open to all , as per my knowledge a poor hashcode function will result in frequent collision in HashMap which eventually increase time for adding an object into Hash Map.

18. What’s wrong using HashMap in multithreaded environment? When get() method go to infinite loop ?
Another good question. His answer was during concurrent access and re-sizing.

19. What do you understand by thread-safety ? Why is it required ? And finally, how to achieve thread-safety in Java Applications ?

Java Memory Model defines the legal interaction of threads with the memory in a real computer system. In a way, it describes what behaviors are legal in multi-threaded code. It determines when a Thread can reliably see writes to variables made by other threads. It defines semantics for volatile, final & synchronized, that makes guarantee of visibility of memory operations across the Threads.

Let’s first discuss about Memory Barrier which are the base for our further discussions. There are two type of memory barrier instructions in JMM – read barriers and write barrier.

A read barrier invalidates the local memory (cache, registers, etc) and then reads the contents from the main memory, so that changes made by other threads becomes visible to the current Thread.
A write barrier flushes out the contents of the processor’s local memory to the main memory, so that changes made by the current Thread becomes visible to the other threads.
JMM semantics for synchronized
When a thread acquires monitor of an object, by entering into a synchronized block of code, it performs a read barrier (invalidates the local memory and reads from the heap instead). Similarly exiting from a synchronized block as part of releasing the associated monitor, it performs a write barrier (flushes changes to the main memory)
Thus modifications to a shared state using synchronized block by one Thread, is guaranteed to be visible to subsequent synchronized reads by other threads. This guarantee is provided by JMM in presence of synchronized code block.

JMM semantics for Volatile fields
Read & write to volatile variables have same memory semantics as that of acquiring and releasing a monitor using synchronized code block. So the visibility of volatile field is guaranteed by the JMM. Moreover afterwards Java 1.5, volatile reads and writes are not reorderable with any other memory operations (volatile and non-volatile both). Thus when Thread A writes to a volatile variable V, and afterwards Thread B reads from variable V, any variable values that were visible to A at the time V was written are guaranteed now to be visible to B.

Let’s try to understand the same using the following code

Data data = null;
volatile boolean flag = false;

Thread A
data = new Data();
flag = true; <-- writing to volatile will flush data as well as flag to main memory Thread B ------------- if(flag==true){ <-- as="" barrier="" data.="" flag="" font="" for="" from="" perform="" read="" reading="" volatile="" well="" will="">
use data;