Address: No. 30/A, First Main Road, Industrial Suburb, 3rd Phase, J.P. Nagar, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560078


Q #1) What is Automation Testing?

Automation testing or Test Automation is a process of automating the manual process to test the application/system under test. Automation testing involves the use of a separate testing tool which lets you create test scripts which can be executed repeatedly and doesn’t require any manual intervention.

Q #2) What are the benefits of Automation Testing?

Benefits of Automation testing are:

Supports execution of repeated test cases
Aids in testing a large test matrix
Enables parallel execution
Encourages unattended execution
Improves accuracy thereby reducing human-generated errors
Saves time and money
Q #3) Why should Selenium be selected as a test tool?


is a free and open source
have a large user base and helping communities
have cross Browser compatibility (Firefox, Chrome, Internet Explorer, Safari etc.)
have great platform compatibility (Windows, Mac OS, Linux etc.)
supports multiple programming languages (Java, C#, Ruby, Python, Pearl etc.)
has fresh and regular repository developments
supports distributed testing
Q #4) What is Selenium? What are the different Selenium components?

Selenium is one of the most popular automated testing suites. Selenium is designed in a way to support and encourage automation testing of functional aspects of web-based applications and a wide range of browsers and platforms. Due to its existence in the open source community, it has become one of the most accepted tools amongst the testing professionals.

Selenium is not just a single tool or a utility, rather a package of several testing tools and for the same reason, it is referred to as a Suite. Each of these tools is designed to cater different testing and test environment requirements.

The suite package constitutes of the following sets of tools:

Selenium Integrated Development Environment (IDE) – Selenium IDE is a record and playback tool. It is distributed as a Firefox Plugin.
Selenium Remote Control (RC) – Selenium RC is a server that allows a user to create test scripts in the desired programming language. It also allows executing test scripts within the large spectrum of browsers.
Selenium WebDriver – WebDriver is a different tool altogether that has various advantages over Selenium RC. WebDriver directly communicates with the web browser and uses its native compatibility to automate.
Selenium Grid – Selenium Grid is used to distribute your test execution on multiple platforms and environments concurrently.
Q #5) What are the testing types that can be supported by Selenium?

Selenium supports the following types of testing:

Functional Testing
Regression Testing
Q #6) What are the limitations of Selenium?

Following are the limitations of Selenium:

Selenium supports testing of only web-based applications
Mobile applications cannot be tested using Selenium
Captcha and Barcode readers cannot be tested using Selenium
Reports can only be generated using third-party tools like TestNG or JUnit.
As Selenium is a free tool, thus there is no ready vendor support through the user can find numerous helping communities.
The user is expected to possess prior programming language knowledge.
Q #7) What is the difference between Selenium IDE, Selenium RC, and WebDriver?

Feature Selenium IDE Selenium RC WebDriver
Browser Compatibility Selenium IDE comes as a Firefox plugin, thus it supports only Firefox Selenium RC supports a varied range of versions of Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Internet Explorer and Opera WebDriver supports a varied range of versions of Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Internet Explorer and Opera.
Also supports HtmlUnitDriver which is a GUI less or headless browser.
Record and Playback Selenium IDE supports record and playback feature Selenium RC doesn’t supports record and playback feature WebDriver doesn’t support record and playback feature
Server Requirement Selenium IDE doesn’t require any server to be started before executing the test scripts Selenium RC requires server to be started before executing the test scripts WebDriver doesn’t require any server to be started before executing the test scripts
Architecture Selenium IDE is a Javascript based framework Selenium RC is a JavaScript based Framework WebDriver uses the browser’s native compatibility to automation
Object Oriented Selenium IDE is not an object oriented tool Selenium RC is semi object oriented tool WebDriver is a purely object oriented tool
Dynamic Finders
(for locating web elements on a webpage)
Selenium IDE doesn’t support dynamic finders Selenium RC doesn’t support dynamic finders WebDriver supports dynamic finders
Handling Alerts, Navigations, Dropdowns Selenium IDE doesn’t explicitly provides aids to handle alerts, navigations, dropdowns Selenium RC doesn’t explicitly provides aids to handle alerts, navigations, dropdowns WebDriver offers a wide range of utilities and classes that helps in handling alerts, navigations, and dropdowns efficiently and effectively.
WAP (iPhone/Android) Testing Selenium IDE doesn’t support testing of iPhone/Andriod applications Selenium RC doesn’t support testing of iPhone/Andriod applications WebDriver is designed in a way to efficiently support testing of iPhone/Android applications. The tool comes with a large range of drivers for WAP based testing.
For example, AndroidDriver, iPhoneDriver
Listener Support Selenium IDE doesn’t support listeners Selenium RC doesn’t support listeners WebDriver supports the implementation of Listeners
Speed Selenium IDE is fast as it is plugged in with the web-browser that launches the test. Thus, the IDE and browser communicates directly Selenium RC is slower than WebDriver as it doesn’t communicates directly with the browser; rather it sends selenese commands over to Selenium Core which in turn communicates with the browser. WebDriver communicates directly with the web browsers. Thus making it much faster.
Q #8) When should I use Selenium IDE?

Selenium IDE is the simplest and easiest of all the tools within the Selenium Package. Its record and playback feature make it exceptionally easy to learn with minimal acquaintances to any programming language. Selenium IDE is an ideal tool for a naïve user.

Q #9) What is Selenese?

Selenese is the language which is used to write test scripts in Selenium IDE.

Q #10) What are the different types of locators in Selenium?

The locator can be termed as an address that identifies a web element uniquely within the webpage. Thus, to identify web elements accurately and precisely we have different types of locators in Selenium:

CSS Selector
Q #11) What is the difference between assert and verify commands?

Assert: Assert command checks whether the given condition is true or false. Let’s say we assert whether the given element is present on the web page or not. If the condition is true then the program control will execute the next test step but if the condition is false, the execution would stop and no further test would be executed.

Verify: Verify command also checks whether the given condition is true or false. Irrespective of the condition being true or false, the program execution doesn’t halt i.e. any failure during verification would not stop the execution and all the test steps would be executed.

Q #12) What is an XPath?

XPath is used to locate a web element based on its XML path. XML stands for Extensible Markup Language and is used to store, organize and transport arbitrary data. It stores data in a key-value pair which is very much similar to HTML tags. Both being markup languages and since they fall under the same umbrella, XPath can be used to locate HTML elements.

The fundamental behind locating elements using XPath is the traversing between various elements across the entire page and thus enabling a user to find an element with the reference of another element.

Q #13) What is the difference between “/” and “//” in Xpath?

Single Slash “/” – Single slash is used to create Xpath with absolute path i.e. the xpath would be created to start selection from the document node/start node.

Double Slash “//” – Double slash is used to create Xpath with relative path i.e. the xpath would be created to start selection from anywhere within the document.

Q #14) What is Same origin policy and how it can be handled?

The problem of same origin policy disallows to access the DOM of a document from an origin that is different from the origin we are trying to access the document.

Origin is a sequential combination of scheme, host, and port of the URL. For example, for a URL, the origin is a combination of http,, 80 correspondingly.

Thus the Selenium Core (JavaScript Program) cannot access the elements from an origin that is different from where it was launched. For Example, if I have launched the JavaScript Program from “”, then I would be able to access the pages within the same domain such as “” or “”. The other domains like, would no more be accessible.

So, In order to handle same origin policy, Selenium Remote Control was introduced.

Q #15) When should I use Selenium Grid?

Selenium Grid can be used to execute same or different test scripts on multiple platforms and browsers concurrently so as to achieve distributed test execution, testing under different environments and saving execution time remarkably.

Q #16) What do we mean by Selenium 1 and Selenium 2?

Selenium RC and WebDriver, in a combination, are popularly known as Selenium 2. Selenium RC alone is also referred as Selenium 1.

Q #17) Which is the latest Selenium tool?


Q #18) How do I launch the browser using WebDriver?

The following syntax can be used to launch Browser:
WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver();

Q #19) What are the different types of Drivers available in WebDriver?

The different drivers available in WebDriver are:

Q #20) What are the different types of waits available in WebDriver?

There are two types of waits available in WebDriver:

Implicit Wait
Explicit Wait
Implicit Wait: Implicit waits are used to provide a default waiting time (say 30 seconds) between each consecutive test step/command across the entire test script. Thus, subsequent test step would only execute when the 30 seconds have elapsed after executing the previous test step/command.

Explicit Wait: Explicit waits are used to halt the execution till the time a particular condition is met or the maximum time has elapsed. Unlike Implicit waits, explicit waits are applied for a particular instance only.

Q #21) How to type in a textbox using Selenium?

The user can use sendKeys(“String to be entered”) to enter the string in the textbox.

WebElement username = drv.findElement(“Email”));
// entering username

Q #22) How can you find if an element in displayed on the screen?

WebDriver facilitates the user with the following methods to check the visibility of the web elements. These web elements can be buttons, drop boxes, checkboxes, radio buttons, labels etc.


boolean buttonPresence = driver.findElement(“gbqfba”)).isDisplayed();

boolean buttonSelected = driver.findElement(“gbqfba”)).isDisplayed();

boolean searchIconEnabled = driver.findElement(“gbqfb”)).isEnabled();

Q #23) How can we get a text of a web element?

Get command is used to retrieve the inner text of the specified web element. The command doesn’t require any parameter but returns a string value. It is also one of the extensively used commands for verification of messages, labels, errors etc displayed on the web pages.

String Text = driver.findElement(“Text”)).getText();

Q #24) How to select value in a dropdown?

The value in the dropdown can be selected using WebDriver’s Select class.


Select selectByValue = new Select(driver.findElement(“SelectID_One”)));

Select selectByVisibleText = new Select (driver.findElement(“SelectID_Two”)));

Select selectByIndex = new Select(driver.findElement(“SelectID_Three”)));

Q #25) What are the different types of navigation commands?

Following are the navigation commands:
navigate().back() – The above command requires no parameters and takes back the user to the previous webpage in the web browser’s history.

Sample code:

navigate().forward() – This command lets the user to navigate to the next web page with reference to the browser’s history.

Sample code:

navigate().refresh() – This command lets the user to refresh the current web page there by reloading all the web elements.

Sample code:

navigate().to() – This command lets the user to launch a new web browser window and navigate to the specified URL.

Sample code:

Q #26) How to click on a hyper link using linkText?


The command finds the element using link text and then click on that element and thus the user would be re-directed to the corresponding page.

The above-mentioned link can also be accessed by using the following command.


The above command finds the element based on the substring of the link provided in the parenthesis and thus partialLinkText() finds the web element with the specified substring and then clicks on it.

Q #27) How to handle frame in WebDriver?

An inline frame acronym as iframe is used to insert another document within the current HTML document or simply a web page into a web page by enabling nesting.

Select iframe by id
driver.switchTo().frame(“ID of the frame“);

Locating iframe using tagName

Locating iframe using index


frame(Name of Frame)
driver.switchTo().frame(“name of the frame”);

frame(WebElement element)
Select Parent Window

Q #28) When do we use findElement() and findElements()?

findElement(): findElement() is used to find the first element in the current web page matching to the specified locator value. Take a note that only first matching element would be fetched.


WebElement element = driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//div[@id=’example’]//ul//li”));
findElements(): findElements() is used to find all the elements in the current web page matching to the specified locator value. Take a note that all the matching elements would be fetched and stored in the list of WebElements.

List elementList = driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//div[@id=’example’]//ul//li”));

Q #29) How to find more than one web element in the list?

At times, we may come across elements of same type like multiple hyperlinks, images etc arranged in an ordered or unordered list. Thus, it makes absolute sense to deal with such elements by a single piece of code and this can be done using WebElement List.

Sample Code

// Storing the list
List elementList = driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//div[@id=’example’]//ul//li”));
// Fetching the size of the list
int listSize = elementList.size();
for (int i=0; i
In this code we use ‘select’ tag to define a dropdown element and the id of the dropdown element is ‘myselect’. We have 3 options in the dropdown: Cars, Bikes and Trains. Each of these options, have a ‘value’ attribute also assigned to them. First option from dropdown has value assigned as ‘option1’, second option has value = ‘option2’ and similarly third option has value assigned as ‘option3’.

If you are clear with the concept so far, then you can proceed to the next aspect of choosing a value from the dropdown. This is a 2 step process:

Identify the ‘select’ html element (Because dropdowns must have the ‘select’ tag)
Select an option from that dropdown element
To identify the ‘select’ html element from the web page, we need to use findElement() method. Look at the below piece of code:

WebElement mySelectElement = driver.findElement(“mySelect”));
Select dropdown = new Select(mySelectElement);
Now to select an option from that dropdown, we can do it in either of the three ways:

dropdown.selectByVisibleText(“Bikes”); → Selecting an option by the text that is visible
dropdown.selectByIndex(“1”); → Selecting, by choosing the Index number of that option
dropdown.selectByValue(“option2”); → Selecting, by choosing the value of that option
Note that from the above example, in all the three cases, “Bikes” will be chosen from the dropdown. In the first case, we are choosing by visible text on the web page. When it comes to selection by index, 1 represents “Bikes” because indexing values start from 0 and then get incremented to 1 and 2. Finally in case of selection by value attribute, ‘option2’ refers to “Bikes”. So, these are the different ways to choose a value from a dropdown.

22. How to switch to a new window (new tab) which opens up after you click on a link?
If you click on a link in a web page, then for changing the WebDriver’s focus/ reference to the new window we need to use the switchTo() command. Look at the below example to switch to a new window:

Here, ‘windowName’ is the name of the window you want to switch your reference to.

In case you do not know the name of the window, then you can use the driver.getWindowHandle() command to get the name of all the windows that were initiated by the WebDriver. Note that it will not return the window names of browser windows which are not initiated by your WebDriver.

Once you have the name of the window, then you can use an enhanced for loop to switch to that window. Look at the piece of code below.

String handle= driver.getWindowHandle();
for (String handle : driver.getWindowHandles())
23. How do you upload a file using Selenium WebDriver?
To upload a file we can simply use the command element.send_keys(file path). But there is a prerequisite before we upload the file. We have to use the html tag: ‘input’ and attribute type should be ‘file’. Take a look at the below example where we are identifying the web element first and then uploading the file.


element = driver.find_element_by_id(”uploaded_file”)
24. Can we enter text without using sendKeys()?
Yes. We can enter/ send text without using sendKeys() method. We can do it using JavaScriptExecutor.

How do we do it?
Using DOM method of, identification of an element, we can go to that particular document and then get the element by its ID (here login) and then send the text by value. Look at the sample code below:

JavascriptExecutor jse = (JavascriptExecutor) driver;
jse.executeScript(“document.getElementById(‘Login’).value=Test text without sendkeys”);
25. Explain how you will login into any site if it is showing any authentication popup for username and password?
Since there will be popup for logging in, we need to use the explicit command and verify if the alert is actually present. Only if the alert is present, we need to pass the username and password credentials. The sample code for using the explicit wait command and verifying the alert is below:

WebDriverWait wait = new WebDriverWait(driver, 10);
Alert alert = wait.until(ExpectedConditions.alertIsPresent());
alert.authenticateUsing(new UserAndPassword(**username**, **password**));
26. Explain how can you find broken links in a page using Selenium WebDriver?
This is a trick question which the interviewer will present to you. He can provide a situation where in there are 20 links in a web page, and we have to verify which of those 20 links are working and how many are not working (broken).

Since you need to verify the working of every link, the workaround is that, you need to send http requests to all of the links on the web page and analyze the response. Whenever you use driver.get() method to navigate to a URL, it will respond with a status of 200 – OK. 200 – OK denotes that the link is working and it has been obtained. If any other status is obtained, then it is an indication that the link is broken.

But how will you do that?
First, we have to use the anchor tags to determine the different hyperlinks on the web page. For each tag, we can use the attribute ‘href’ value to obtain the hyperlinks and then analyze the response received for each hyperlink when used in driver.get() method.

27. Which technique should you consider using throughout the script “if there is neither frame id nor frame name”?
If neither frame name nor frame id is available, then we can use frame by index.

Let’s say, that there are 3 frames in a web page and if none of them have frame name and frame id, then we can still select those frames by using frame (zero-based) index attribute. Each frame will have an index number. The first frame would be at index “0”, the second at index “1” and the third at index “2”. Once the frame has been selected, all subsequent calls on the WebDriver interface will be made to that frame.

driver.switchTo().frame(int arg0);
C. TestNG Framework For Selenium – Selenium Interview Questions
28. What is the significance of testng.xml?
I’m pretty sure you all know the importance of TestNG. Since Selenium does not support report generation and test case management, we use TestNG framework with Selenium. TestNG is much more advanced than JUnit, and it makes implementing annotations easy. That is the reason TestNG framewrok is used with Selenium WebDriver.

But have you wondered where to define the test suites and grouping of test classes in TestNG?

It is by taking instructions from the testng.xml file. We cannot define a test suite in testing source code, instead it is represented in an XML file, because suite is the feature of execution. The test suite, that I am talking about is basically a collection of test cases.

So for executing the test cases in a suite, i.e a group of test cases, you have to create a testng.xml file which contains the name of all the classes and methods that you want to execute as a part of that execution flow.

Other advantages of using testng.xml file are:

It allows execution of multiple test cases from multiple classes
It allows parallel execution
It allows execution of test cases in groups, where a single test can belong to multiple groups
29. What is parameterization in TestNG? How to pass parameters using testng.xml?
Parameterization is the technique of defining values in testng.xml file and sending them as parameters to the test class. This technique is especially useful when we need to pass multiple login credentials of various test environments. Take a look at the code below, in which “myName” is annotated as a parameter.

public class ParameterizedTest1{
public void parameterTest(String myName) {
System.out.println(“Parameterized value is : ” + myName);
To pass parameters using testng.xml file, we need to use ‘parameters’ tag. Look at the below code for example: