Eurofins IT Solutions ( call based 2016, 2017 batch )

Eurofins IT Solutions ( call based 2016, 2017 batch )

qa profile

drive date 19-5-2018

Address: 540/1, Graphite India Road, NCPR Industrial Layout, Doddanakundi Industrial Area 2, Seetharampalya,, Hoodi, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560048

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check on these link for interview question

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for written test these are topics
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Time and Distance
Time and Work
Compound Interest
Partnership
Problems on Ages
Clock
Area
Permutation and Combination
Problems on Numbers

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1. What is the MAIN benefit of designing tests early in the life cycle?
It helps prevent defects from being introduced into the code.

2. What is risk-based testing?

Risk-based Testing is the term used for an approach to creating a Test Strategy that is based on prioritizing tests by risk. The basis of the approach is a detailed risk analysis and prioritizing of risks by risk level. Tests to address each risk are then specified, starting with the highest risk first.

3. What is the KEY difference between preventative and reactive approaches to testing?

Preventative tests are designed early; reactive tests are designed after the software has been produced.

4. What is the purpose of exit criteria?

The purpose of exit criteria is to define when a test level is completed.

5. What determines the level of risk?

The likelihood of an adverse event and the impact of the event determine the level of risk.

6. When is used Decision table testing?

Decision table testing is used for testing systems for which the specification takes the form of rules or cause-effect combinations. In a decision table, the inputs are listed in a column, with the outputs in the same column but below the inputs. The remainder of the table explores combinations of inputs to define the outputs produced.

Learn More About Decision Table Testing Technique in the Video Tutorial here

7. What is the MAIN objective when reviewing a software deliverable?

To identify defects in any software work product.

8. Which of the following defines the expected results of a test? Test case specification or test design specification.

Test case specification defines the expected results of a test.

9. What is the benefit of test independence?

It avoids author bias in defining effective tests.

10. When do you determine the exit criteria?

The exit criteria are determined during ‘Test Planning’.

11. What is beta testing?

Testing performed by potential customers at their own locations.

12. Given the following fragment of code, how many tests are required for 100% decision coverage?

if width > length

thenbiggest_dimension = width

if height > width

thenbiggest_dimension = height

end_if

elsebiggest_dimension = length

if height > length

thenbiggest_dimension = height

end_if

end_if

4

13. You have designed test cases to provide 100% statement and 100% decision coverage for the following fragment of code. if width > length then biggest_dimension = width else biggest_dimension = length end_if The following has been added to the bottom of the code fragment above. print “Biggest dimension is ” &biggest_dimensionprint “Width: ” & width print “Length: ” & length How many more test cases are required?

None, existing test cases can be used.

14. Rapid Application Development?

Rapid Application Development (RAD) is formally a parallel development of functions and subsequent integration. Components/functions are developed in parallel as if they were mini projects, the developments are time-boxed, delivered, and then assembled into a working prototype. This can very quickly give the customer something to see and use and to provide feedback regarding the delivery and their requirements. Rapid change and development of the product is possible using this methodology. However the product specification will need to be developed for the product at some point, and the project will need to be placed under more formal controls before going into production.

15. What is the difference between Testing Techniques and Testing Tools?

Testing technique: – Is a process for ensuring that some aspects of the application system or unit functions properly there may be few techniques but many tools.

Testing Tools: – Is a vehicle for performing a test process. The tool is a resource to the tester, but itself is insufficient to conduct testing

Learn More About Testing Tools here

16. We use the output of the requirement analysis, the requirement specification as the input for writing …

User Acceptance Test Cases

17. Repeated Testing of an already tested program, after modification, to discover any defects introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes in the software being tested or in another related or unrelated software component:

Regression Testing

18. A wholesaler sells printer cartridges. The minimum order quantity is 5. There is a 20% discount for orders of 100 or more printer cartridges. You have been asked to prepare test cases using various values for the number of printer cartridges ordered. Which of the following groups contain three test inputs that would be generated using Boundary Value Analysis?

4, 5, 99

19. What is component testing?

Component testing, also known as unit, module, and program testing, searches for defects in and verifies the functioning of software (e.g., modules, programs, objects, classes, etc.) that are separately testable. Component testing may be done in isolation from the rest of the system depending on the context of the development life cycle and the system. Most often stubs and drivers are used to replace the missing software and simulate the interface between the software components in a simple manner. A stub is called from the software component to be tested; a driver calls a component to be tested.

Here is an awesome video on Unit Testing

20. What is functional system testing?

Testing the end to end functionality of the system as a whole is defined as a functional system testing.

21. What are the benefits of Independent Testing?

Independent testers are unbiased and identify different defects at the same time.

22. In a REACTIVE approach to testing when would you expect the bulk of the test design work to be begun?

The bulk of the test design work begun after the software or system has been produced.

23. What are the different Methodologies in Agile Development Model?

There are currently seven different agile methodologies that I am aware of:

Extreme Programming (XP)
Scrum
Lean Software Development
Feature-Driven Development
Agile Unified Process
Crystal
Dynamic Systems Development Model (DSDM)
24. Which activity in the fundamental test process includes evaluation of the testability of the requirements and system?

A ‘Test Analysis’ and ‘Design’ includes evaluation of the testability of the requirements and system.

25. What is typically the MOST important reason to use risk to drive testing efforts?

Because testing everything is not feasible.

26. What is random/monkey testing? When is it used?

Random testing is often known as monkey testing. In such type of testing data is generated randomly often using a tool or automated mechanism. With this randomly generated input, the system is tested, and results are analyzed accordingly. These testing are less reliable; hence it is normally used by the beginners and to see whether the system will hold up under adverse effects.

27. Which of the following are valid objectives for incident reports?

Provide developers and other parties with feedback about the problem to enable identification, isolation, and correction as necessary.
Provide ideas for test process improvement.
Provide a vehicle for assessing tester competence.
Provide testers with a means of tracking the quality of the system under test.
28. Consider the following techniques. Which are static and which are dynamic techniques?

Equivalence Partitioning.
Use Case Testing.
Data Flow Analysis.
Exploratory Testing.
Decision Testing.
Inspections.
Data Flow Analysis and Inspections are static; Equivalence Partitioning, Use Case Testing, Exploratory Testing and Decision Testing are dynamic.

29. Why are static testing and dynamic testing described as complementary?

Because they share the aim of identifying defects but differ in the types of defect they find.

30. What are the phases of a formal review?

In contrast to informal reviews, formal reviews follow a formal process. A typical formal review process consists of six main steps:

Planning
Kick-off
Preparation
Review meeting
Rework
Follow-up.
31. What is the role of moderator in the review process?

The moderator (or review leader) leads the review process. He or she determines, in co-operation with the author, the type of review, approach and the composition of the review team. The moderator performs the entry check and the follow-up on the rework, to control the quality of the input and output of the review process. The moderator also schedules the meeting, disseminates documents before the meeting, coaches other team members, paces the meeting, leads possible discussions and stores the data that is collected.

Learn More about Review process in Video Tutorial here

32. What is an equivalence partition (also known as an equivalence class)?

An input or output ranges of values such that only one value in the range becomes a test case.

33. When should configuration management procedures be implemented?

During test planning.

34. A Type of Functional Testing, which investigates the functions relating to detection of threats, such as virus from malicious outsiders?

Security Testing

35. Testing where in, we subject the target of the test, to varying workloads to measure and evaluate the performance behaviors and the ability of the target and the test to continue to function properly under these different workloads?

Load Testing

36. Testing activity which is performed to expose defects in the interfaces and the interaction between integrated components is?

Integration Level Testing

37. What are the Structure-based (white-box) testing techniques?

Structure-based testing techniques (which are also dynamic rather than static) use the internal structure of the software to derive test cases. They are commonly called ‘white-box’ or ‘glass-box’ techniques (implying you can see into the system) since they require knowledge of how the software is implemented, that is, how it works. For example, a structural technique may be concerned with exercising loops in the software. Different test cases may be derived to exercise the loop once, twice, and many times. This may be done regardless of the functionality of the software.

38. When should “Regression Testing” be performed?

After the software has changed or when the environment has changed Regression testing should be performed.

39. What is negative and positive testing?

A negative test is when you put in an invalid input and receives errors. While positive testing is when you put in a valid input and expect some action to be completed in accordance with the specification.

40. What is the purpose of a test completion criterion?

The purpose of test completion criterion is to determine when to stop testing

41. What can static analysis NOT find?

For example memory leaks.

42. What is the difference between re-testing and regression testing?

Re-testing ensures the original fault has been removed; regression testing looks for unexpected side effects.

43. What are the Experience-based testing techniques?

In experience-based techniques, people’s knowledge, skills, and background are a prime contributor to the test conditions and test cases. The experience of both technical and business people is important, as they bring different perspectives to the test analysis and design process. Due to previous experience with similar systems, they may have insights into what could go wrong, which is very useful for testing.

44. What type of review requires formal entry and exit criteria, including metrics?

Inspection

45. Could reviews or inspections be considered part of testing?

Yes, because both help detect faults and improve quality.

46. An input field takes the year of birth between 1900 and 2004. What the boundary values for testing this field are?

1899,1900,2004,2005

47. Which of the following tools would be involved in the automation of regression test? a. Data tester b. Boundary tester c. Capture/Playback d. Output comparator.

d. Output comparator

48. To test a function, what has to write a programmer, which calls the function to be tested and passes it test data.

Driver

49. What is the one Key reason why developers have difficulty testing their own work?

Lack of Objectivity

50.”How much testing is enough?”

The answer depends on the risk for your industry, contract and special requirements.

51. When should testing be stopped?

It depends on the risks for the system being tested. There are some criteria based on which you can stop testing.

Deadlines (Testing, Release)
Test budget has been depleted
Bug rate fall below a certain level
Test cases completed with certain percentage passed
Alpha or beta periods for testing ends
Coverage of code, functionality or requirements are met to a specified point
52. Which of the following is the main purpose of the integration strategy for integration testing in the small?

The main purpose of the integration strategy is to specify which modules to combine when and how many at once.

53. What are semi-random test cases?

Semi-random test cases are nothing, but when we perform random test cases and do equivalence partitioning to those test cases, it removes redundant test cases, thus giving us semi-random test cases.

54. Given the following code, which statement is true about the minimum number of test cases required for full statement and branch coverage?

Read p

Read q

IF p+q> 100

THEN Print “Large”

ENDIF

IF p > 50

THEN Print “p Large”

ENDIF

1 test for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage

55. What is black box testing? What are the different black box testing techniques?

Black box testing is the software testing method which is used to test the software without knowing the internal structure of code or program. This testing is usually done to check the functionality of an application. The different black box testing techniques are

Equivalence Partitioning
Boundary value analysis
Cause-effect graphing
56. Which review is normally used to evaluate a product to determine its suitability for intended use and to identify discrepancies?

Technical Review.

57. Why we use decision tables?

The techniques of equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis are often applied to specific situations or inputs. However, if different combinations of inputs result in different actions being taken, this can be more difficult to show using equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis, which tend to be more focused on the user interface. The other two specification-based techniques, decision tables, and state transition testing are more focused on business logic or business rules. A decision table is a good way to deal with combinations of things (e.g., inputs). This technique is sometimes also referred to as a ’cause-effect’ table. The reason for this is that there is an associated logic diagramming technique called ’cause-effect graphing’ which was sometimes used to help derive the decision table

58. Faults found should be originally documented by whom?

By testers.

59. Which is the current formal world-wide recognized documentation standard?

There isn’t one.

60. Which of the following is the review participant who has created the item to be reviewed?

Author

61. A number of critical bugs are fixed in software. All the bugs are in one module, related to reports. The test manager decides to do regression testing only on the reports module.

Regression testing should be done on other modules as well because fixing one module may affect other modules.

62. Why does the boundary value analysis provide good test cases?

Because errors are frequently made during programming of the different cases near the ‘edges’ of the range of values.

63. What makes an inspection different from other review types?

It is led by a trained leader, uses formal entry and exit criteria and checklists.

64. Why can be tester dependent on configuration management?

Because configuration management assures that we know the exact version of the testware and the test object.

Q #1) What is the difference between Quality Assurance, Quality Control and testing?

Quality Assurance is the process of planning and defining the way of monitoring and implementing the quality (test) processes within a team and organization. This method basically defines and sets the quality standards of the projects.

Quality Control is the process of finding defects and providing suggestions to improve the quality of the software. The methods used by Quality Control are usually established by the quality assurance.

It is the primarily responsibility of the testing team to implement quality control.

Testing is the process of finding defects / bug. It validates whether the software built by the development team meets the requirements set by the user and the standards set by the organization.

Here the main focus is on finding bugs and testing team acts as quality gatekeeper.

Q #2) When do you think QA activities should start?

QA activity should start from the beginning of the project. The more early it starts the more benefit it is to set the standards for achieving the quality.

The cost, time and efforts are very challenging in case the QA activities gets delayed.

Q #3) What is the difference between Test Plan and Test Strategy

Test Strategy is at a higher level, mostly created by the Project Manager which demonstrates the overall approach of the testing for the entire project, whereas Test plan basically depicts the how the testing should be performed for a particular application, falling under a project.

Q #4) Can you explain the software testing life cycle?

Software Testing Life Cycle refers to a testing process which has specific steps to be executed in a definite sequence to ensure that the quality goals have been met.

Please refer to the below link to know more:

Q #5) How do you define a format of writing a good test case?

A test case has the below format:

Test case ID,
Test case description
Severity
Priority
Environment
Build version
Steps to execute
Expected results
Actual results
Also, refer to the below link to get more information:

Q #6) What is a good test case?

In simple words, a good test case is one which finds a defect. But all test case will not find defects, so A good test case can also be one which has all the prescribed details and coverage.

Q #7) What would you do if you have a large suit to execute in a very less time?

In case we have less time, and have to execute larger volume of test cases, we should prioritize the test case at first instant and execute the high priority test cases first and then move on to the lower priority ones.

This way we can make sure that the important aspects of the software is tested.

Alternatively, we may also seek customer preference that which is the most important functionality of the software according to them, and we should start testing from those areas and then gradually move to those areas which are of less importance.

Q #8) Do you think QA’s can also participate to resolve production issues?

Definitely!! It would be a good learning curve for QA’s to participate in resolving production issues. Many a time production issues could be resolved by clearing the logs or making some registry settings or by restarting the services.

These kind of environmental issues could be very well fixed by the QA team.

Also If QAs have an insight on resolving the production issues, they may also include them while writing the test cases, and this way they can contribute to improve quality and try to minimize the production defects.

Q #9) Suppose you find a bug in production, how would you make sure that the same bug is not introduced again?

Best way is to immediately write a test case for the production defect and include it in the regression suite. This way we ensure that the bug does not get introduced again.

Also many a time we can also think of alternate test cases or similar kind of test case and include them in our planned execution.

Q #10) What is the difference between functional and nonfunctional testing?

Functional testing basically deals with the functional aspect of the application. This technique tests that the system is behaving as per the requirement and specification.

These are directly linked with customer requirement. We validate the test cases against the specified requirement and make the test pass or failed accordingly.

Examples include regression, integration, system, smoke etc…

Nonfunctional testing – on the other hand tests the Nonfunctional aspect of the application. It tests NOT the requirement, but the environmental factors like performance, load and stress.

These are not explicitly specified in the requirement but are prescribed in the quality standards. So as QA we have to make sure that these testing are also given sufficient time and priority.

Q #11) What is negative testing? How is it different from positive testing?

Negative testing is a technique which validates that the system behaves gracefully in case of any invalid inputs.

For example, in case user enters any invalid data in a text box, system should display a proper message instead of technical message which the user does not understands.

Negative testing is different from positive testing in a way that positive testing validates that our system works as expected and compares the test results with the expected results.

Most of the time scenarios for negative testing are not mentioned in the functional requirement documents. As a QA we have to identify the negative scenarios and should have provisions to test those.

Q #12) How would you ensure that your testing is complete and has good coverage?

Requirement traceability matrix and Test coverage matrices will help us to determine that our test cases have good coverage.

Requirement traceability matrices will help us to determine that the test conditions are enough so that all the requirements are covered.

Coverage matrices will help us to determine that the test cases are enough to satisfy all the identified test conditions in RTM.

A RTM will look something like:

quality assurance 1

Similarly Test coverage matrices will look like:

quality assurance 2

Q #13) What are the different artifacts you refer when you write the test cases?

The main artifacts used are:

Functional requirement specification
Requirement understanding document
Use Cases
Wireframes
User Stories
Acceptance criteria
Many a time UAT test cases
Q #14) Have you ever managed writing the test cases without having any documents?

Yes, many a time we have a situation where we have to write test cases without having any concrete documents. In that case, best way is to

Collaborate with the BA and development team.
Dig into mails which have some information.
Dig into older test cases / regression suite
If the feature is new, try to read the wiki pages or help of the application to have an idea
Sit with the developer and try to understand the changes being made.
Based on your understanding, identify the test condition and send it to BA or stakeholders to review them.
Q #15) What is meant by Verification and Validation?

Validation is the process of evaluating the final product to check whether the software meets the business needs.

The test execution which we do in our day to day life are actually the validation activity which includes smoke testing, functional testing, regression testing, systems testing etc…

Verification is a process of evaluating the intermediary work products of a software development lifecycle to check if we are in the right track of creating the final product.

Q #16) What are the different verification techniques you know?

Verification techniques are static in nature. There are 3 verification techniques:

Review, Inspection and walkthrough.

1) Review – Is a method by which the code / test cases are examined by the individual other than the author who has produced it.

It is one of the easy and best way to ensure coverage and quality.

2) Inspection – Is a technical and disciplined way to examine and correct the defects in the test artifact or code. Because it is disciplined, it has various roles:

Moderator – Who facilitates the entire inspection meeting
Recorder – Who records the minutes of meeting, defects occurred, and other points discussed.
Reader – The one who will read out the document / code. The leader also leads the entire inspection meeting.
Producer – The author. They are ultimately responsible to update their document / code as per the comments.
Reviewer – All the team can be considered as reviewer. This role can also be played be some group of experts is the project demands.
3) Walkthrough – Is a process in which the author of the document / code reads the content and gets the feedback.

This is most of the time a kind of FYI (For your information) session rather than seeking corrections.

Q #17) What is the difference between Load and Stress testing?

Stress Testing is a technique which validates the behavior of the system when it executes under stress. To explain, we reduce the resources and check the behavior of the system.

We first understand the upper limit of the system and gradually reduce the resources and check the system behavior.

In Load testing we validate the system behavior under the expected load. The load can be of concurrent user or resources accessing the system at the same time.

Q #18) In case you have any doubts regarding your project, how do you approach?

In case of any doubts, first try to get it clear by reading the available artifacts / application help. In case of doubts still persisting, ask immediate supervisor or the senior member of your team.

BA’s would also be a good choice to ask the doubts. We can also touch base with the development team in case of any doubts. The last option would be to follow up with the manager and finally to the stakeholders

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